- Primary—a benign tumor of the parathyroid gland that makes too much PTH (most common form)
- Secondary—occurs in people with long-standing kidney failure or a vitamin D deficiency
- Tertiary—occurs in people with long-standing kidney failure and dialysis
|Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands: Posterior (Back) View|
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- Noncancerous tumor in the parathyroid gland—most common cause
- Familial hyperparathyroidism
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)
- Parathyroid cancer—rare
- Vitamin D deficiency due to inadequate dietary intake, lack of sunlight exposure, or malabsorption condition like celiac disease
- Kidney failure or other medical problems that make the body resistant to the action of the parathyroid hormone
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia
- Having specific genetic factors that increase your risk
- Radiation therapy to the head or neck during childhood
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Technetium 99m sestamibi scan—a nuclear medicine test that uses safe nuclear molecules to make pictures of the parathyroid glands to help locate a single parathyroid adenoma in primary hyperparathyroidism
- If a growth is causing the problems, surgery may be done to remove the growth
- Hyperparthyroidism due to a vitamin D deficiency may be treated with medications
- Treating underlying causes
- Medication to manage possible side effects
Monitoring of Blood Calcium Levels
American Association of Endocrine Surgeons http://endocrinediseases.org
Hormone Health Network—Endocrine Society http://www.hormone.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism http://www.endo-metab.ca
Hyperparathyroidism. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/hyperparathyroidism/treatment.html. Updated March 2014. Accessed June 4, 2014.
Hyperparathyroidism. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 28, 2014. Accessed June 4, 2014.
Silverberg SJ, Bilezikian JP. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2006;2:494-503.
Taniegra E. Hyperparathyroidism. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(2):333.
11/26/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Paik J, Curhan G, et al. Calcium intake and risk of primary hyperparathyroidism in women: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2012;345:e6390.
- Reviewer: Kim Carmichael, MD
- Review Date: 02/2015 -
- Update Date: 06/04/2013 -