(Juvenile Pernicious Anemia; Congenital Pernicious Anemia)
|Red Blood Cells|
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- Inflammation of the stomach—atrophic gastritis
Immune system reaction to:
- Intrinsic factor—a protein necessary for vitamin B12 absorption
- Cells that produce both intrinsic factor and hydrochloric acid in the stomach
- Removal of all or part of the stomach
- Genetic defect
- Sensation of pins and needles in feet or hands
- Alternating constipation and diarrhea
- Stinging sensation on the tongue, or a smooth red tongue
- Substantial weight loss
- Inability to distinguish the colors yellow and blue
- Loss of hunger
- Altered sense of taste
- Impaired sense of balance, especially in the dark
- Ringing in the ears— tinnitus
- Cracked lips
- Inability to sense vibrations in feet or legs
- Lightheadedness when changing to standing position
- Rapid heart rate
- Bone marrow biopsy
- Gastric cell biopsy
- Shilling test (rare)—to evaluate the amount of stored vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 Injections
Oral Vitamin B12 Supplement
Intranasal Vitamin B12
Oral Iron Therapy
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements http://ods.od.nih.gov
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Beers MH, Berkow R, eds. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 17th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories; 1999.
Beers MH, Porter RS, Jones TV, eds. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 18th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories; 2006.
Escott-Stump S. Nutrition and Diagnosis-Related Care. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.
Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc; 2005.
Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, eds. Krause’s Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2000.
Mahan LK, Escott-Stump S, eds. Krause’s Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2003.
Morrison G, Hark L, eds. Medical Nutrition and Disease. 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Science; 1999.
Pernicioius anemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 9, 2013. Accessed September 4, 2014.
Whitney EN, Rolfes SR. Understanding Nutrition. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: West/Wadsworth; 1999.
Whitney EN, Rolfes SR. Understanding Nutrition. 9th ed. Belmont, CA: West/Wadsworth; 2002.
- Reviewer: Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 08/2014 -
- Update Date: 09/30/2013 -