A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a ruptured blood vessel. It may be:
- Intracerebral hemorrhage—bleeding in the brain
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage —bleeding in the tissue around the brain
- An ischemic stroke is caused by a blocked blood vessel.
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- Abnormality in blood vessel structure
- Arterio-venous (AV) malformation —an abnormal knot of blood vessels
- Aneurysm —a weakened spot in a blood vessel wall
- Other illness or medical conditions like hypertension
- Gender: Men are more likely to have a stroke than women
- Age: Risk of stroke increases with age particularly after 55 years of age.
- Family history of stroke
- Having a vessel abnormality
- High blood pressure
- Sleep apnea
- Cocaine use
- Alcohol use disorder
- Sudden weakness or numbness of face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body
- Sudden confusion
- Sudden trouble speaking or understanding
- Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
- Sudden dizziness, trouble walking, loss of balance, or coordination
- Sudden severe headache with no known cause
- Loss of consciousness
- Neck stiffness
- Nausea or vomiting
- Sensitivity to light
- Decrease pressure in your brain
- Prevent seizures
- Lower blood pressure
- For a burst aneurysm—A clip may be placed just before the damaged vessel to stop bleeding.
- For a leaking or intact aneurysm—A special coil may be placed in the aneurysm. The coil will help a clot form in the aneurysm to prevent bleeding. A clip, as used in burst aneurysms, may be placed instead of a coil.
- For an abnormal tangle of blood vessels—Surgery may be done to repair the blood vessels. This may include removing the tangles or rerouting the blood around this tangle.
- Physical therapy—to regain as much movement as possible
- Occupational therapy—to assist in everyday tasks and self-care
- Speech therapy—to improve swallowing and speech challenges
- Psychological therapy —to improve mood and decrease depression
- Getting regular exercise.
- Eating more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
- Limiting dietary salt and fat.
- Quitting smoking.
- Drinking alcohol only in moderation (1-2 drinks per day).
- Maintaining a healthy weight.
- Check blood pressure frequently. Follow your doctor's recommendations for keeping it in a safe range.
- Stop the use of recreational drugs (such as cocaine).
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Stroke Association http://www.stroke.org
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Hemorrhagic strokes (bleeds). American Heart Association American Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/TypesofStroke/HemorrhagicBleeds/Hemorrhagic-Strokes-Bleeds%5FUCM%5F310940%5FArticle.jsp. Accessed June 6, 2013.
Hemorrhagic stroke. The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia website. Available at: http://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/hemorrhagic-stroke#.VYl2%5FRtViko. Accessed June 7, 2013.
Hemorrhagic stroke. National Stroke Association. Available at: http://www.stroke.org/understand-stroke/what-stroke/hemorrhagic-stroke?pagename=HEMSTROKE. Accessed June 10, 2013.
Intracerebral hemorrhage. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 21, 2013. Accessed June 6, 2013.
Stroke (acute management). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 2, 2013. Accessed June 6, 2013.
Stroke treatments. American Heart Association American Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/Treatment/Stroke-Treatments%5FUCM%5F310892%5FArticle.jsp. Update May 23, 2103. Accessed June 7, 2013.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 22, 2013. Accessed June 6, 2013.
8/11/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Molnar MZ, Mucsi I, Novak M, et al. Association of incident obstructive sleep apnoea with outcomes in a large cohort of US veterans. Thorax. 2015 Jun 2 [Epub ahead of print].
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 06/2015 -
- Update Date: 08/11/2015 -