- Weight loss
- Fast heart rate
- Heart palpitations
- Intolerance to heat
- Frequent bowel movements
- Scant menstruation
- Bone thinning
- Hair loss
- Changes in the appearance of the eye (bulging or staring)
- Goiter (a visible enlargement of the neck caused by a swollen thyroid gland)
Proposed Natural Treatments
Herbs and Supplements to Avoid
1 Kohrle J, Auf'mkolk M, Winterhoff H. Iodothyronine deiodinases: inhibition by plant extracts. Acta Endocrinol . 1981;96:15-16.
2 Auf'mkolk M, Ingbar JC, Kubota K, et al. Extracts and auto-oxidized constituents of certain plants inhibit the receptor-binding and the biological activity of graves' immunoglobulins. Endocrinology . 1985;116:1687-1693.
3 Auf'mkolk M, Kohrle J, Gumbinger H, et al. Antihormonal effects of plant extracts: iodothyronine deiodinase of rate liver is inhibited by extracts and secondary metabolites of plants. Horm Metab Res . 1984;16:188-192.
4 Sourgens H, Winterhoff H, Gumbinger HG, et al. Antihormonal effects of plant extracts. TSH- and prolactin-suppressing properties of Lithospermum officinale and other plants. Planta Med . 1982;45:78-86.
5 Brinker F. Inhibition of endocrine function by botanical agents. I. Boraginaceae and Labiatae.J Naturopath Med . 1990;1:10-18.
6 Benvenga S, Ruggeri RM, Russo A, et al. Usefulness of l-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2001;86:3579-3594.
7 Benvenga S, Lakshmanan M, Trimarchi F. Carnitine is a naturally occurring inhibitor of thyroid hormone nuclear uptake. Thyroid . 2000;10:1043-1050.
8 Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs, Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines . Austin TX: American Botanical Council; Boston, Ma: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998:172.
9 Panda S, Kar A. Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations after administration of ashwagandha root extract to adult male mice. J Pharm Pharmacol . 1998;50:1065-1068.
10 Eliason C. Transient hyperthyroidism in a patient taking dietary supplements containing kelp. J Am Board Fam Pract . 1998;11:478-480.
11 Shilo S, Hirsch HJ. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in a patient with a normal thyroid gland. Postgrad Med J . 1986;62:661-662.
12 Ishizuki Y, Yamauchi K, Miura Y. Transient thyrotoxicosis induced by Japanese kombu. Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi . 1989;65:91-98.
13 Erem C, Deger O, Ovali E, et al. The effects of royal jelly on autoimmunity in Graves' disease. Endocrine. 2006;30:175-183.
14 Azezli AD, Bayraktaroglu T, Orhan Y. The use of konjac glucomannan to lower serum thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007;26:663-668.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -