- Pain in the temporomandibular joint
- Popping, clicking, or grating in the temporomandibular joint while eating and/or drinking
- A sensation of the jaw “catching” or “locking” briefly, while attempting to open or close the mouth, or while chewing
- Difficulty opening the mouth completely
- Pain in the jaw
- Facial pain
- Muscle pain and/or spasm in the area of the temporomandibular joint
- Ear pain
- Neck and/or shoulder pain
Proposed Natural Treatments
1 Plesh O, Curtis D, Levine J, et al. Amitriptyline treatment of chronic pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Oral Rehabil . 2000;27:834–841.
2 Herman CR, Schiffman EL, Look JO, et al. The effectiveness of adding pharmacologic treatment with clonazepam or cyclobenzaprine to patient education and self-care for the treatment of jaw pain upon awakening: a randomized clinical trial. J Orofac Pain . 2002;16:64–70.
3 Kuttila M, Le Bell Y, Savolainen-Niemi E, et al. Efficiency of occlusal appliance therapy in secondary otalgia and temporomandibular disorders. Acta Odontol Scand . 2002;60:248–254.
4 Minakuchi H, Kuboki T, Matsuka Y, et al. Randomized controlled evaluation of non-surgical treatments for temporomandibular joint anterior disk displacement without reduction. J Dent Res . 2001;80:924–928.
5 Raphael KG, Marbach JJ. Widespread pain and the effectiveness of oral splints in myofascial face pain. J Am Dent Assoc . 2001;132:305–316.
6 Ekberg EC, Vallon D, Nilner M. Occlusal appliance therapy in patients with temporomandibular disorders. A double-blind controlled study in a short-term perspective. Acta Odontol Scand . 1998;56:122–128.
7 Thie NM, Prasad NG, Major PW. Evaluation of glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: a randomized double blind controlled 3 month clinical trial. J Rheumatol . 2001;28:1347–1355.
8 Nguyen P, Mohamed SE, Gardiner D, et al. randomized double-blind clinical trial of the effect of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride on temporomandibular joint disorders: a pilot study. Cranio . 2001;19:130–139.
9 Crider AB, Glaros AG. A meta-analysis of EMG biofeedback treatment of temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain . 1999;13:29–37.
10 Ernst E, White AR. Acupuncture as a treatment for temporomandibular joint dysfunction: a systematic review of randomized trials. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 1999;125:269–272.
11 Winocur E, Gavish A, Halachmi M, et al. Topical application of capsaicin for the treatment of localized pain in the temporomandibular joint area. J Orofac Pain . 2000;14:31–36.
12 Smith P, Mosscrop D, Davies S et al. The efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of temporomandibular joint myofascial pain: A randomised controlled trial. J Dent . 2006 Nov 7 [Epub ahead of print].
13 Ritenbaugh C, Hammerschlag R, Calabrese C, et al. A pilot whole systems clinical trial of traditional Chinese medicine and naturopathic medicine for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14:475-487.
14 La Touche R, Angulo-Díaz-Parreño S, et al. Effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders of muscular origin: a systematic review of the last decade. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16:107.
15 Abrahamsen R, Baad-Hansen L, Zachariae R, Svensson P. Effect of hypnosis on pain and blink reflexes in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders. Clin J Pain. 2011;27(4):344-351.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 08/22/2013 -