Defining High Blood Pressure
- Prehypertension is SBP120-139 mm Hg or DPB 80-89 mm Hg
- Stage 1 hypertension is SBP 140-159 mm Hg or DPB 90-99 mm Hg
- Stage 2 hypertension is SBP more than 160 mm Hg or DBP more than 100 mm Hg
Common Risk Factors
- Age: middle-aged or elderly (onset generally happens at 20-50 years, but likelihood increases with age)
- Race: African American
- Gender: Male
- A high-normal blood pressure (systolic pressure of 120-139 mm Hg and/or a diastolic pressure of 80-89 mm Hg)
- A family history of high blood pressure
- Being physically inactive
- Taking birth control pills
- Having diet high in red meat, salt, fat
- High alcohol intake
Lifestyle Guidelines to Prevent or Reduce High Blood Pressure
- Losing weight if you are overweight
- Increasing levels of physical activity
- Eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products
- Eating a diet that is low in saturated and total fat
- Limiting consumption of sodium to less than 2,300 milligrams per day
- Drinking alcohol only in moderation—This means no more than one alcoholic drink per day if you are a woman and no more than two if you are a man.
American Diabetes Association http://ada.org/
American Heart Association http://www.americanheart.org/
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://ww2.heartandstroke.ca/
How Can High Blood Pressure Be Prevented? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hbp/prevention.html. Updated August 2, 2012. Accessed November 28, 2012.
How to Prevent High Blood Pressure. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/what%5Fyou%5Fcan%5Fdo.htm. Updated February 1, 2010. Accessed November 28, 2012.
Hypertension. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated November 26, 2012. Accessed November 28, 2012.
Hypertension Treatment in Patients with Diabetes. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated November 12, 2012. Accessed November 28, 2012.
Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42(6):1206-1252.
Understanding Your Risk for High Blood Pressure. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/UnderstandYourRiskforHighBloodPressure/Understand-Your-Risk-for-High-Blood-Pressure%5FUCM%5F002052%5FArticle.jsp. Updated April 4, 2012. Accessed November 28, 2012.
Whelton PK, He J, Appel LJ, et al. Clinical and public health advisory from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. JAMA. 2002;288:1882-1888.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 11/2012 -
- Update Date: 11/28/2012 -