(Cancer of Anus)
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- Anal bleeding with and without a bowel movement
- Pain or pressure around the anus
- Itching or discharge from the anus
- A lump near the anus
- Change in bowel habits
- Thinning in the width of the stool
- Digital rectal examination
- Anoscopy—exam of the anus and lower rectum
- Proctoscopy—exam of the rectum
- Lab tests—focusing on the function of the bone marrow, kidneys, and liver
American Cancer Society http://www.cancer.org
National Cancer Institute http://www.cancer.gov
Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Anal cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003083-pdf.pdf. Accessed May 23, 2013.
Anal cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated May 14, 2013. Accessed May 23, 2013.
Anal cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/anal. Accessed May 23, 2013.
Joura EA, Leodolter S, Hernandez-Avila M, et al. Efficacy of a quadrivalent prophylactic human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine against high-grade vulval and vaginal lesions: a combined analysis of three randomised clinical trials. Lancet. 2007; 369:1693.
Uronis HE, Bendell JC. Anal cancer: an overview. Oncologist. 2007;12:524-534.
- Reviewer: Mohei Abouzied, MD; Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 05/2013 -
- Update Date: 00/52/2013 -