- Ventricular septal defect (VSD) —A hole in the heart. It is on a wall that separates the two lower chambers.
- Overriding aorta—The aorta, which is the body's largest artery, comes out of the left ventricle, but partially covers or comes out of the right ventricle
- Pulmonary stenosis—The valve in the heart that allows blood to pass from the heart toward the lungs is too narrow.
- Right ventricular hypertrophy—The muscle on the right side of the heart is too thick.
|Ventricular Septal Defect|
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- Family history
- Mother's use of retinoic acid
- Mother's use of oral fluconazole
- Mother's alcohol use
- Mother has infection with rubella
- Pregnancy in mothers over 40
- Maternal diabetes
- Blue coloring of the skin and lips caused by a low oxygen level in the blood
- Shortness of breath and rapid breathing caused by a low oxygen level in the blood
- Older children may have shortness of breath and fainting spells when exercising
- Clubbing of the fingers
- Lips and skin become very blue
- Baby will become breathless and irritable
- Baby may become sleepy or unconscious if low oxygen levels continue
- Older children may squat with their knees on their chest to help recover from the breathlessness
- Closing the hole in the heart. A patch will be placed over the hole.
Improving the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs by one or more of the following:
- Removing some of the thickened heart muscle on the right side of the heart
- Repairing or replacing the valve that allows the blood to flow from the heart to the lungs
- Increasing the size of the blood vessels that carry blood to the lungs
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov
About Kids Health http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
Canadian Adult Congenital Heart Network http://www.cachnet.org
Tetralogy of fallot. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/Tetralogy-of-Fallot%5FUCM%5F307038%5FArticle.jsp. Updated March 30, 2012. Accessed May 20, 2013.
Tetralogy of fallot. Cincinnati Children's Hospital website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/t/tof/. Updated October 2012. Accessed May 20, 2013.
Tetralogy of fallot in infants and children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 20, 2012. Accessed May 20, 2013.
What is tetralogy of fallot? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/tof/. Accessed May 20, 2013.
10/1/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Molgaard-Nielsen D, Pasternak B, Hviid A. Use of oral fluconazole during pregnancy and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. 2013 Aug 29;369(9):830-9.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 03/2014 -
- Update Date: 05/07/2014 -