The Immune System
Ways to Fool the System
- A part of the toxin responsible for the ill effects of the infection, as in tetanus and diphtheria
- Tiny components of killed bacteria, as in pertussis
- Viral protein produced by biotechnology, as in hepatitis B
- Killed viruses or parts of viruses, as in inactivated polio
- Live viruses that have been rendered harmless by a process called attenuation, as in measles, mumps, rubella, or chickenpox
Active Versus Passive Immunity
Vaccines to Prevent Other Diseases
Why Should Everyone Be Vaccinated?
|BCG (tuberculosis)||Smallpox (vaccinia)|
How and When Are Vaccines Given?
|Indicates age range to administer dose(s)|
|Vaccine||Birth||1 Month||2 Months||4 Months||6 Months||9 Months||12 Months||15 Months||18 Months||19-23 Months||2-3 Years||4-6 Years|
|Diptheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTaP)||DTaP||DTaP||DTaP||DTaP||DTaP|
|Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib)||Hib||Hib||Hib||Hib|
|Inactivated poliovirus (IPV)||IPV||IPV||IPV||IPV|
|Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)||MMR||MMR|
|Hepatitis A||HepA Series|
|Indicates age range to administer dose(s)|
|Indicates vaccines only recommended for certain high risk groups|
|Vaccine||7-10 years||11-12 years||13-18 years|
|Diptheria, tetanus, pertussis||Tdap||Tdap||Tdap|
|Human papillomavirus||HPV (3 doses)||HPV series|
|Meningococcal (Meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended for certain children at increased risk from ages 2 months-10 years)||MCV4||MCV4||MCV4||Booster at age 16|
|Hepatitis A||Hep A series|
|Hepatitis B||Hep B series|
|Inactivated poliovirus||IPV series|
|Measles, mumps, rubella||MMR series|
How Safe Are Vaccines?
Precautions and Contraindications
- Mild acute illness with or without low-grade fever in an otherwise well child
- A child in the recovery phase of illness
- Current use of antibiotics
- Recent exposure to an infectious illness
- Reaction to a previous vaccine dose involving only localized soreness, redness, or swelling
- Infants born prematurely
- Breastfeeding mother
- History of nonspecific allergies or relatives with allergies
- History of allergies to penicillin or any other antimicrobial agent, except anaphylactic reactions to neomycin or streptomycin
- Family history of seizures, sudden infant death syndrome, or adverse events after immunization
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vaccines & Immunizations http://www.cdc.gov
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
2015 Recommended immunizations for children from birth through 6 years old. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/downloads/parent-ver-sch-0-6yrs.pdf. Updated January 26, 2015. Accessed February 17, 2015.
2015 Recommended immunizations for children from 7 through 18 years old. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/who/teens/downloads/parent-version-schedule-7-18yrs.pdf. Updated January 26, 2015. Accessed February 17, 2015.
About the VAERS program. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System website. Available at: http://vaers.hhs.gov/about/index. Accessed February 17, 2015.
Bosch FX, Tsu V, et al. Reframing cervical cancer prevention. Expanding the field towards prevention of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F1-F11.
Carrillo-Marquez M, White L. Current controversies in childhood vaccination. S D Med. 2013;Spec no:46-51.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National, state, and local area vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months—United States, 2011. MMWR. 2012;61:689-696.
Chang MH. Hepatitis B virus and cancer prevention. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2011;188:75-84.
Childhood vaccines: What they are and why your child needs them. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/kids/vaccines/childhood-vaccines-what-they-are-and-why-your-child-needs-them.html. Updated December 2010. Accessed February 17, 2015.
Giraldi G, De Luca d'Alessandro E. The HPV infection in males: An update. Ann Ig. 2012;24(6):497-506.
Human papillomavirus vaccine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 16, 2015. Accessed February 17, 2015.
Immunizations in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 19, 2015. Accessed February 17, 2015.
Immune system. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease website. Available at: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/immuneSystem/Pages/overview.aspx. Updated December 30, 2013. Accessed February 17, 2015.
Immunity types. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/immunity-types.htm. Updated May 19, 2014. Accessed February 17, 2015.
STD facts-HPV and men. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv-and-men.htm. Updated December 22, 2014. Accessed February 17, 2015.
Vaccines. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease website. Available at: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/vaccines/understanding/Pages/whatVaccine.aspx. Updated August 18, 2008. Accessed February 17, 2015.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 02/2015 -
- Update Date: 02/17/2015 -