Principal Proposed Uses
What Is Red Clover Used for Today?
What is the Scientific Evidence for Red Clover
Menopausal Hot Flashes
Interactions You Should Know About
1 Baber RJ, Templeman C, Morton T, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of an isoflavone supplement and menopausal symptoms in women. Climacteric. 1999;2:85-92.
2 Knight DC, Howes JB, Eden JA. The effect of Promensil, an isoflavone extract, on menopausal symptoms. Climacteric. 1999;2:79-84.
3 Howes JB, Sullivan D, Lai N, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on the lipoprotein profiles of post menopausal women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis. 2000;152:143-147.
4 Cassady JM, Zennie TM, Chae YH, et al. Use of a mammalian cell culture benzo(a)pyrene metabolism assay for the detection of potential anticarcinogens from natural products: inhibition of metabolism by biochanin A, an isoflavone from Trifolium pratense L.Cancer Res. 1988;48:6257-6261.
5 Yanagihara K, Ito A, Toge T, et al. Antiproliferative effects of isoflavones on human cancer cell lines established from the gastrointestinal tract. Cancer Res . 1993;53:5815-5821.
6 Ingram DM, Hickling C , West L, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of isoflavones in the treatment of cyclical mastalgia. The Breast 2002;11:170-174.
7 van de Weijer P, Barentsen R. Isoflavones from red clover (Promensil) significantly reduce menopausal hot flush symptoms compared with placebo. Maturitas. 2002;42:18.
8 Messina M, Gardner C, Barnes S. Gaining insight into the health effects of soy but a long way still to go: commentary on the fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. J Nutr . 2002;132:547S-551S.
9 Blakesmith SJ, Lyons-Wall PM, George C, et al. Effects of supplementation with purified red clover ( Trifolium pratense ) isoflavones on plasma lipids and insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal women. Br J Nutr . 2003;89:467-475.
10 Tice JA, Ettinger B, Ensrud K, et al. Phytoestrogen supplements for the treatment of hot flashes: The Isoflavone Clover Extract (ICE) Study. JAMA . 2003;290:207-214.
11 Nestel P, Cehun M, Chronopoulos A, et al. A biochanin-enriched isoflavone from red clover lowers LDL cholesterol in men. Eur J Clin Nutr . 2004;58:403-408.
12 Howes JB, Tran D, Brillante D, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in postmenopausal type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab . 2003;5:325-332.
13 Atkinson C, Compston JE, Day NE, et al. The effects of phytoestrogen isoflavones on bone density in women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr . 2004;79:326-333.
14 Howes JB, Bray K, Lorenz L, et al. The effects of dietary supplementation with isoflavones from red clover on cognitive function in postmenopausal women. Climacteric . 2004;7:70-77.
15 Hidalgo LA, Chedraui PA, Morocho N et al. The effect of red clover isoflavones on menopausal symptoms, lipids and vaginal cytology in menopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Gynecol Endocrinol . 2005;21:257-264.
16 Imhof M, Gocan A, Reithmayr F et al. Effects of a red clover extract (MF11RCE) on endometrium and sex hormones in postmenopausal women. Maturitas . 2006 Feb 28 [Epub ahead of print].
17 Powles TJ, Howell A, Evans DG, et al. Red clover isoflavones are safe and well tolerated in women with a family history of breast cancer. Menopause Int. 2008;14:6-12.
- Reviewer: EBSCO CAM Review Board
- Review Date: 07/2012 -
- Update Date: 07/25/2012 -