- Genetic factors
- Altered pathways in brain caused by the addictive drug
- Peer pressure and personality traits
|Chemical Release in Brain|
|Opioids stimulate the release of "euphoric" chemicals in the brain. Over time, more of the drug is required to produce the same release, leading to abuse.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Improper use of medication (abuse)
- Family history of drug addiction
- Having anxiety, depression, loneliness, and a history of alcoholism
- Rapid increase in the amount of medication needed
- Moving from one doctor to another for additional prescriptions
- Craving the medication
- Inability to stop or limit medication use
- Using significant effort to acquire the medication
- Medication use that interferes with activities
- Compulsive use of the medication despite adverse effects
- Detoxification and controlled withdrawal with medication
- Treatment for other psychological conditions
- Counseling and support
- Buprenorphine/naloxone—a combination drug
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
National Institute on Drug Abuse http://www.drugabuse.gov
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse http://www.ccsa.ca
The Council on Drug Abuse http://drugabuse.ca
Drug facts: Treatment approaches to drug addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction. Updated September 2009. Accessed March 13, 2013.
Edlund M, Steffick D, et al. Risk factors for clinically recognized opioid abuse and dependence among veterans using opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Pain. 2007;129(3):355-362.
Hall W, Doran C, Degenhardt L, et al. Illicit opiate abuse. National Center for Biotechnology Information website. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11797. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Opiate addiction treatment programs. Addiction-Treatment website. Available at: http://www.addiction-treatment.com/research/opiate. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Opioid abuse or dependence. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 15, 2013. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Opioid addiction. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/opioid-addiction.html. Updated January 2011. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Opioid withdrawal. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 13, 2011. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Praveen KT, Law F, et al. Opioid dependence. Am Fam Physcian. 2012;86(6):565-566.
The science of addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/sciofaddiction.pdf. Updated August 2010. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Types of treatment programs. Principle of drug addiction treatment: A researched-based guide. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/drug-addiction-treatment-in-united-states/types-treatment-programs. Updated December 2012. Accessed March 11, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 06/24/2013 -