- Genetic factors
- Altered pathways in brain caused by the addictive drug
- Peer pressure and personality traits
|Chemical Release in Brain|
|Opioids stimulate the release of "euphoric" chemicals in the brain. Over time, more of the drug is required to produce the same release, leading to abuse.|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Improper use of medication (abuse)
- Family history of drug addiction
- Having anxiety, depression , loneliness, and a history of alcoholism
- Rapid increase in the amount of medication needed
- Moving from one doctor to another for additional prescriptions
- Craving the medication
- Inability to stop or limit medication use
- Using significant effort to acquire the medication
- Medication use that interferes with activities
- Compulsive use of the medication despite adverse effects
- Detoxification and controlled withdrawal with medication
- Treatment for other psychological conditions
- Counseling and support
- Buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone)
American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor http://familydoctor.org
National Institute on Drug Abuse http://www.drugabuse.gov
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse http://www.ccsa.ca
The Council on Drug Abuse http://drugabuse.ca
Drug facts: Treatment approaches to drug addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction . Updated September 2009. Accessed March 13, 2013.
Edlund M, Steffick D, Hudson T, Harris T, Sullivan M. Risk factors for clinically recognized opioid abuse and dependence among veterans using opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Pain . 2007;129(3):355-362.
Hall W, Doran C, Degenhardt L, et al. Illicit opiate abuse. National Center for Biotechnology Information website. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=dcp2.section.7003 . Published 2006. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Opiate addiction treatment programs. Addiction-Treatment website. Available at: http://www.addiction-treatment.com/research/opiate/ . Accessed March 11, 2013.
Opioid abuse or dependence. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what . Updated February 15, 2013. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Opioid addiction. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/opioid-addiction.html . Updated January 2011. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Opioid withdrawal. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what . Updated July 13, 2011. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Praveen KT, Law F, O'Shea J, et al. Opioid dependence. Am Fam Physcian . 2012;86(6):565-566.
Prescription drug addiction. EBSCO Health Library website. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthlibrary . Updated December 2011. Accessed March 11, 2013.
The Science of Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/sciofaddiction.pdf . Updated August 2010. Accessed March 11, 2013.
Types of treatment programs. Principle of drug addiction treatment: A researched-based guide. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/drug-addiction-treatment-in-united-states/types-treatment-programs . Updated December 2012. Accessed March 11, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 02/2014 -
- Update Date: 06/24/2013 -