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- A scarred endometrium (the lining of the uterus)
- A large placenta
- An abnormal uterus
- Abnormal formation of the placenta
- Previous cesarean section
- Uterine problems
- Multiple pregnancy—two or more fetuses
- Multiple previous full-term pregnancies
- Increased age
- Major bleeding
- Increased risk of infection
- Increased likelihood of a blood transfusion
- Premature birth, which occurs when an infant is less than 37 weeks of gestation
- Fetal blood loss during labor
- Maternal or fetal death
- Pelvic rest—avoid sexual intercourse and tampon use if placenta previa continues into third trimester
- Hospitalization for major placenta previa at or beyond 34 weeks of gestation
- Medications to prolong your pregnancy and help with growth of fetal lungs with symptomatic placenta previa or bleeding at 24-34 weeks
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
Placenta previa. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at: http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/placenta-previa. Updated May 2007. Accessed August 6, 2013.
Placenta previa. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 15, 2012. Accessed August 6, 2013.
Pregnancy complications. Office on Women's Health website. Available at: http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/pregnancy-complications.html. Updated September 27, 2010. Accessed August 6, 2013.
5/12/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Podrasky AE, Javitt MC, Glanc P, et al. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria for second and third trimester bleeding. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/SecondAndThirdTrimesterBleeding.pdf. Updated 2013. Accessed May 12, 2014.
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm
- Review Date: 05/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/12/2014 -