|Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
- Sudden stops or changes in direction
- Sidestepping or pivoting
- Direct contact
- Weak knee structure
- Muscle strength imbalance between the quadriceps and hamstrings
- Playing sports that require sudden changes of direction and deceleration
- Use of incorrect technique for cutting, planting, pivoting, or jumping
- Previous injury or reconstructive ACL surgery
- A popping sound at the time of the injury
- Pain and swelling in the knee
- Loss of full range of motion
- Weakness or instability in the knee
- Difficulty walking
- Grade 1—Mild ligament damage.
- Grade 2—Partial tearing of the ligament.
- Grade 3—Complete tearing of the ligament.
- Rest—Activities will need to be restricted. Normal activities will be gradually reintroduced as the injury heals.
- Ice—Ice therapy may help relieve swelling. Heat may be advised when activities begin to resume.
- Compression—Compression bandages can provide gentle pressure to help move fluids out of the area.
- Elevation—Keeping the affected area elevated can help fluids drain out or prevent fluids from building up.
- Plyometrics , a form of jumping exercises, can be used to train and strengthen the leg muscles for jumping and landing.
- When jumping and landing or turning and pivoting, your hips and knees should be bent, not straight.
- Strengthen both the quadriceps and the hamstrings.
- Maintain proper technique when exercising or playing sports.
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine http://www.sportsmed.org
OrthoInfo—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://orthoinfo.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 5, 2015. Accessed March 3, 2015.
Anterior cruciate ligament injuries. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Ortho Info website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00549. Updated March 2014. Accessed March 3, 2015.
Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: treatment and rehabilitation. Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science website. Available at: http://sportsci.org/encyc/aclinj/aclinj.html. Updated April 18, 1998. Accessed March 3, 2015.
ACL Injury: Does It Require Surgery? American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00297. Updated September 2009. Accessed March 3, 2015.
Griffin LY, Agel J, et al. Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: risk factors and prevention strategies. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2000;8:141-150.
Knee sprains and meniscal injuries. Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries%5Fpoisoning/fractures%5Fdislocations%5Fand%5Fsprains/knee%5Fsprains%5Fand%5Fmeniscal%5Finjuries.html. Updated December 2014. Accessed March 3, 2015.
Ligament injuries to the knee. John Hopkins Medicine website. Available at. http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/adult/orthopaedic%5Fdisorders/ligament%5Finjuries%5Fto%5Fthe%5Fknee%5F85,P00926. Accessed March 3, 2015.
7/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Prodromos CC, Han Y, et al. A meta-analysis of the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears as a function of gender, sport, and a knee injury-reduction regimen. Arthroscopy. 2007;23:1320-1325.
5/12/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Pediatrics. 2014 Apr [Epub ahead of print].
- Reviewer: Teresa Briedwell, PT, DPT
- Review Date: 03/2015 -
- Update Date: 05/12/2014 -