(Major Depressive Affective Disorder; Unipolar Disorder; Unipolar Mood Disorder)
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- Having a family history of depression
- Spouse with depression
- Previous episode of depression
- Hormonal changes
- Chronic illness
- Other conditions related to mental health such as anxiety , drug abuse , insomnia , and personality disorder
- History of traumatic brain injury
- History of concussion in teenagers
- History of drug or alcohol use disorder
- Domestic violence
- History of child abuse and neglect or sexual abuse
- History of bullying
- History of self-harm as a teenager, with or without suicidal intent
Emotional or social factors, such as:
- Little or no social support
- Negative thought patterns and beliefs
- Low self-esteem
- Lack of personal control over circumstances
- Feelings of helplessness
- Persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety, or emptiness
- Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless
- Feeling tired
- Restlessness or irritability
- Trouble sleeping, waking up too early, or oversleeping
- Loss of interest in hobbies and activities
- Trouble concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
- Loss of interest in sex
- Eating more or less than usual
- Weight gain or weight loss
- Thoughts of death or suicide with or without suicide attempts
- Physical symptoms that defy standard diagnosis and do not respond well to medical treatments
- Alcohol and drug use
- Thoughts of death or suicide
- Family members who have or have had depression
- Sleep patterns
- Previous episodes of depression
Diet and Exercise
|Stimulation of the vagus nerve (yellow) at the neck is a depression therapy option.|
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Other Treatment Options
- Being aware of your personal risk factors
- Having a psychiatric evaluation and psychotherapy if needed
- Developing social supports
- Learning stress management techniques
- Exercising regularly
- Not abusing alcohol or drugs
- Getting adequate sleep, rest, and recreation
- Eating healthy food, including fruits, vegetables , and whole grains
Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance http://www.dbsalliance.org
Mental Health America http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net
Canadian Mental Health Association http://www.ontario.cmha.ca
Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org
Antidepressant use in children, adolescents, and adults. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/UCM096273. Updated August 12, 2010. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Columbia University. Q&A on bright light therapy. Columbia University website. Available at: http://www.columbia.edu/~mt12/blt.htm. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Depression. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 15, 2014. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Depression. Mental Health America website. Available at: http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/conditions/depression. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Depression (mild to moderate). EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary. Updated August 2013. Accessed September 18, 2014.
Groves DA, Brown VJ. Vagal nerve stimulation: a review of its applications and potential mechanisms that mediate its clinical effects. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29(3):493-500.
St. John's wort. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary. Updated August 2013. Accessed September 18, 2014.
St. John's wort and depression. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine website. Available at: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/stjohnswort/sjw-and-depression.htm. Updated September 2013. Accessed September 18, 2014.
St. John's wort for depression. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 26, 2012. Accessed September 18, 2014.
What is depression? National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml. Accessed September 18, 2014.
12/16/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Linde K, Berner M, Kriston L. St. John's wort for major depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(4):CD000448.
10/9/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Sánchez-Villegas A, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Alonso A, et al. Association of the Mediterranean dietary pattern with the incidence of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(10):1090.
7/26/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Lespérance F, Frasure-Smith N, St-André E, et al. The efficacy of omega-3 supplementation for major depression: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72(8):1054-1062.
12/13/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Britton WB, Haynes PL, Fridel KW, Bootzin RR. Polysomnographic and subjective profiles of sleep continuity before and after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in partially remitted depression. Psychosom Med. 2010;72(6):539-548.
3/28/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Barbui C, Cipriani A, Patel V, Ayuso-Mateos JL, van Ommeren M. Efficacy of antidepressants and benzodiazepines in minor depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;198(1):11-16, sup 1.
7/28/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Jakobsen JC, Hansen JL, Simonsen E, Gluud C. The effect of adding psychodynamic therapy to antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses. J Affect Disord. 2012;137(1-3):4-14.
11/6/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mars B, Heron J, Crane C, et al. Clinical and social outcomes of adolescent self harm: Population based birth cohort study. BMJ. 2014;349:g5954.
- Reviewer: Adrian Preda, MD
- Review Date: 08/2015 -
- Update Date: 11/06/2014 -