(PD; Paralysis Agitans; Shaking Palsy)
- Slowing down of movements (bradykinesia)
- Tremor at rest
- Muscle rigidity
- Loss of reflexes that maintain posture and equilibrium
|Part of the Brain Affected by PD—Yellow Section|
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- Family members with PD
- Exposure to toxins, such as insecticides, carbon monoxide , or manganese
- Certain medications, such as antipsychotics, antiseizures, antiemetics, or cardiovascular medications
- Certain health conditions, such as:
- IV drug use
- Problems with dexterity
- Difficulty with activities of daily living
- Stiffness and rigidity of muscles, usually beginning on one side of the body
- Tremors are present at rest, improve with movement, and are absent during sleep
- Slowness of purposeful movements
- Neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as:
- Difficulty and shuffling when walking
- Poor balance
- Tendency to fall
- Loss of smell
- Sleep problems
- Flat, monotonous voice
- Trouble speaking (often speaking with a low volume)
- Increasingly mask-like face, with little variation in expression
- Drooling and excessive salivation
- Shaky, spidery, or small handwriting
- Seborrhea (a skin problem that causes a red rash and white scales)
- Trouble chewing and swallowing
- Urinary symptoms (frequency and urgency)
- Bowel movement symptoms (straining, constipation)
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Dopamine agonists
- Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
- COMT inhibitors
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Tricyclic antidepressants
- Deep brain stimulation (DBS)—implanting a device to stimulate certain parts of the brain; can decrease tremor and rigidity
- Thalamotomy and pallidotomy—destroying certain areas of the brain to improve tremor when medication does not work (not as common as deep brain stimulation)
- Nerve-cell transplants (research only)—to increase amount of dopamine made in the brain
National Parkinson Foundation http://www.parkinson.org
Parkinson's Disease Foundation http://www.pdf.org
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Parkinson Society Canada http://www.parkinson.ca
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Managing your PD. Parkinson’s Disease Foundation website. Available at: http://www.pdf.org/en/managing%5Fpd. Accessed September 5, 2013.
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NINDS Parkinson's disease information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons%5Fdisease/parkinsons%5Fdisease.htm. Updated September 3, 2013. Accessed September 5, 2013.
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Parkinson disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 27, 2013. Accessed September 5, 2013.
Parkinson's disease. American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Parkinsons%20Disease.aspx. Accessed September 5, 2013.
Perlmutter JS, Eidelberg D. To scan or not to scan: DaT is the question. Neurology. 2012;78:688-689.
Ristić AJ, Vojvodić N, et al. The frequency of reversible parkinsonism and cognitive decline associated with valproate treatment: a study of 364 patients with different types of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2006:47(12):2183-2185.
Samii A, et al. Parkinson's disease. Lancet. 2004;363:1783-1793.
Schenkman N, et al. Exercise for people in early- or mid-stage Parkinson disease: a 16-month randomized controlled trial. Phys Ther. 2012.
Siderowf A, et al. Update on Parkinson's disease. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:651-658.
Wider C, Wszolek CK. Movement disorders: insights into mechanisms and hopes for treatments. Lancet Neurology. 2009;8(1):8-10.
1/4/2011 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Spinks A, Wasiak J, Bernath V, Villaneuva E. Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD002851.
4/7/2014 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Marras C, Hincapié CA, et al. Systematic review of the risk of Parkinson's disease after mild traumatic brain injury: results of the international collaboration on mild traumatic brain injury prognosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Mar;95(3S):S238-244.
- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 09/2013 -
- Update Date: 04/07/2014 -