- Physical assault
- Natural disaster (eg, earthquake, hurricane, fire)
- Sexual abuse
- Motor vehicle accidents
- Animal attack
- Previous traumatic experiences
- A history of being physically abused
- Poor coping skills
- Lack of social support
- Existing ongoing stress
- A social environment that produces shame, guilt, stigmatization, or self-hatred
- Alcohol abuse
- Family history of mental health problems
Re-experiencing of the event
- Dreams or nightmares
- Anxious reactions to reminders of the event
- Avoidance of having close emotional contact with family and friends
- Avoidance of people or places that are reminders of the event
- Loss of memory about the event
- Feelings of detachment, numbness
- Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
- Anger and irritability
- Difficulty concentrating or paying attention
- Being easily startled
- Symptoms of PTSD, which have lasted for more than one month
- Both emotional distress and disturbed functioning (eg, problems at school, work, or home) due to the symptoms
- Acute—symptoms last between 1-3 months after the event
- Chronic—symptoms last more than three months after the event
- Delayed onset—symptoms do not appear until at least six months after the event
|Managing Mental Health Concerns|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
- Working with a cognitive-behavioral therapist
- Having a strong network of social support
Anxiety Disorders Association of America http://www.adaa.org/
Gift From Within http://www.giftfromwithin.org/
National Center for PTSD http://www.ptsd.va.gov/
Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org/
Canadian Psychological Association http://www.cpa.ca/
Antidepressant use in children, adolescents, and adults. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/UCM096273. Published May 22, 2009. Accessed August 27, 2012.
Benedek DM, Friedman MJ, Zatzick D. Guideline watch: practice guideline for the treatment of patients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic dtress disorder. Focus . 2009;7:204-213.
DSM criteria for PTSD. US Department of Veterans Affairs website. Available at: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/dsm-iv-tr-ptsd.asp. Updated December 20, 2011. Accessed August 27, 2012.
Jeffereys M. Clinician's guide to medications for PTSD. United States Department of Veterans Affairs website. Available at: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/clinicians-guide-to-medications-for-ptsd.asp. Updated September 12, 2011. Accessed August 27, 2012.
Post-traumatic stress disorder. American Psychiatric Association website. Available at: http://www.apa.org/topics/ptsd/index.aspx. Accessed August 27, 2012.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated August 21, 2012. Accessed August 27, 2012.
Treatment of PTSD. US Department of Veterans Affairs website. Available at: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/treatment-ptsd.asp. Updated April 25, 2012. Accessed August 27, 2012
What is the actual EMDR session like? EMDR International Association website. Available at: http://emdria2.affiniscape.com/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr=120. Accessed August 27, 2012.
What is PTSD? US Department of Veterans Affairs website. Available at: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/what-is-ptsd.asp. Updated May 29, 2012. Accessed August 27, 2012.
3/16/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Schnurr PP, Friedman MJ, Engel CC, et al. Cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2007;297:820-830.
11/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Ji L, Xiaowei Z, Chuanlin W, Wei L. Investigation of posttraumatic stress disorder in children after animal-induced injury in China. Pediatrics. 2010;126(2):e320-324.
- Reviewer: Brian Randall, MD
- Review Date: 03/2013 -
- Update Date: 03/15/2013 -