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- The supply of vitamin D from diet or sun exposure is too low.
- The way the body processes vitamin D is not typical.
- Tissue does not respond to the action of vitamin D.
- There is not enough calcium or phosphorous in the diet or it cannot be absorbed
- Kidney disease is present.
Not enough vitamin D in the diet. In children, this may be related to:
- Not drinking enough vitamin D-fortified milk
- Not giving enough vitamin D supplements to children being breastfed or to children who are lactose intolerant
- Lack of exposure to sunlight
- Kidney problems:
- Diseases of the small intestines with malabsorption
- Disorders of the liver or pancreas disease
Certain drugs, such as:
- Certain seizure medications, such as phenytoin or phenobarbital
- Ammonium chloride
- Disodium etidronate
- Fluoride treatment
Toxicity or poisoning from:
- Outdated tetracycline
- Lack of sun exposure
Age: 6 to 24 months
- Babies who are breastfed—breast milk is low in vitamin D
- Babies who do not drink enough formula that is fortified with vitamin D
- Children who do not drink enough vitamin D-fortified milk
- Lactose intolerance with low intake of vitamin D-fortified milk
- Family history of rickets
- Race: Black, especially in association with breastfeeding
- Certain chronic illnesses that result in loss of or poor absorption of calcium
- Bone pain and tenderness
- Skeletal and/or skull deformities
- Bow legs or knock knees
- Deformity or curvature of the spine
- Pigeon chest—a chest that protrudes
- Impaired growth, resulting in short stature
- Bone fractures
- Dental deformities
- Delayed tooth formation
- Defects in teeth
- Increased cavities
- Loss of appetite or weight loss
- Difficulty sleeping
- Muscle weakness
- Delayed walking
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Bone biopsy
- Correct the underlying cause
- Relieve or reverse symptoms
Treating the Underlying Cause
Adding the following to your child's diet:
- Vitamin D-fortified dairy products
- Foods high in vitamin D, such as fatty fish, egg yolk, and green vegetables
- Foods high in calcium
- Supplements of vitamin D, calcium, and other minerals
- Biologically active vitamin D
- Adequate, but not excessive, exposure to sunlight
- Avoiding medication that may be causing poor calcium absorption
- Treating underlying illnesses
- Wearing braces to reduce or prevent bony deformities
- In severe cases, surgery to correct bony deformities
- Drink vitamin D-fortified milk.
- Consume enough vitamin D , calcium, and other minerals. If you think your child's diet may be lacking, talk with the doctor about other sources of vitamins and minerals.
- Get sufficient, but not excessive, exposure to sunlight. Fifteen minutes a day is usually enough. Any longer than that requires sun protection with clothing or sunscreens, especially in fair-skinned infants and children. Children with dark skin are at increased risk for rickets and may need more sun exposure and dietary supplements with vitamin D.
- Breastfed babies and bottle-fed babies who do not get enough vitamin-D fortified formula may need to be given a supplement starting within the first few days of life. Children not getting at least 400 units of vitamin D from their diet may also need supplements. Talk to the doctor to make sure your child is meeting the nutritional requirements for vitamin D.
American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics http://www.eatright.org
About Kids Health http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca
Alberta Human Services http://humanservices.alberta.ca
Balk SJ; Council on Environmental Health; Section on Dermatology. Ultraviolet radiation: a hazard to children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011;127(3):e791-817.
Grant WB, Boucher BJ. Requirements for Vitamin D across the life span. Biol Res Nurs. 2011;13(2):120-133.
Rickets: what it is and how it's treated. American Academy of Family Physicians' FamilyDoctor.org website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/rickets.html. Updated November 2010. Accessed July 30, 2013.
Vitamin D deficiency in children (infancy through adolescence). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 5, 2013. Accessed July 30, 2013.
Wagner CL, Greer FR, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2008;122:1142-1152.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 06/2013 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -