- Urinary tract
- Whole body—systemic infection causes multiple organ failure and death
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- Contamination from caregivers
- Contamination during breastfeeding
- Birth complications, such as preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, or perinatal asphyxia
- Very low birth weight babies admitted to neonatal intensive care
- Vaginal yeast infection in the mother at the time of birth
- Decreased interest in feeding
- White, lacy patches on the inside of the cheeks or tongue that don't come off when rubbed
- Sore mouth and throat
- Difficulty swallowing
- Differences in taste
- White or red patches on the inside of the cheeks or tongue that may or may not come off when rubbed
- Fissures or cracks in the mouth
- Your baby is at risk for developing a systemic infection
- Your baby can't tolerate other treatments
- Your baby doesn't respond to other treatments
Proper Oral Hygiene
- Clean your baby's mouth with a clean, moist gauze pad as soon as baby teeth appear.
- Have your child rinse his or her mouth with warm salt water
- Gently scrape patches off your child's mouth with a toothbrush
- Gently brush any newly appearing teeth with a child-size toothbrush and water.
- Start to clean your baby’s teeth regularly as soon as they come in. Use an amount of fluoride toothpaste that is about the size of a grain of rice. Progress to an amount that is about the size of a pea by the time your child is 3 years of age. This will reduce the risk of your child swallowing it.
- If your child has 2 teeth that touch, you can start to use dental floss.
- Maintain proper oral hygiene after treatment.
- If your child is at risk, ask your child's doctor about antifungal medication.
- Thoroughly clean your baby's pacifier and toothbrush.
- If your baby is prone to thrush and drinks from a bottle, use disposable nipples.
- Avoid mouthwashes and mouth sprays. These can upset the normal balance of yeast and bacteria in the mouth.
- If your child uses a corticosteroid inhaler, make sure they rinse their mouth thoroughly after each use.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
National Foundation for Infectious Diseases http://www.nfid.org
Canadian Dental Association http://www.cda-adc.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Babies and kids healthy habits. American Dental Association Mouth Healthy website. Available at: http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/babies-and-kids/healthy-habits. Accessed January 13, 2015.
Greenspan D, Greenspan JS. HIV-related oral disease. Lancet. 1996;358:9029).729-733.
Oral candidiasis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/candidiasis/thrush/. Updated February 13, 2014. Accessed January 13, 2015.
Oral candidiasis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 6, 2014. Accessed January 13, 2015.
Oral candidiasis in infants. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 26, 2013. Accessed January 13, 2015.
A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the effects of nystatin on the development of oral irritation in patients receiving high-dose intravenous interleukin-2. J Immunother. 2001;24(2):188-192.
2/17/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. Fluoride toothpaste use for young children. J Am Dent Assoc. 2014 Feb;145(2):190-191.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 01/2015 -
- Update Date: 02/17/2014 -