(Toxemia of Pregnancy; Pregnancy-induced Hypertension; Preeclampsia)
|Cardiovascular System and Kidneys|
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- Pre-eclampsia in a previous pregnancy
- First pregnancy
- Family history, such as a mother and sister who also had the condition
- Carrying multiple babies such as twins
- Chronic high blood pressure
- Kidney disease
- Overweight or obese
- Sleep-disordered breathing—abnormal breathing during sleep ranging from snoring to sleep apnea
- History of polycystic ovary syndrome
- Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
- Bloating or water retention
- Noticeably swollen ankles or feet, outside of normal swelling that occurs during pregnancy
- Swelling of the face and upper body
- Vision troubles
- Upper abdominal pain
- Nausea or vomiting
- Feeling short of breath
- Chest pain
- Urinating less
- Blood pressure measurement to see if blood pressure is 140/90 or higher
- Urine tests to look for elevated protein levels
- Blood tests—to check general body health and kidney and liver function
Delivery of the Baby
- How many weeks along you are in your pregnancy
- Condition of the mother and baby
- Severity of pre-eclampsia
- Risk of other pregnancy complications
- Lower blood pressure
- Reduce the risk of convulsions
- Help fetal lung development in case the baby is born prematurely
- Taking frequent blood pressure readings
- Getting plenty of rest
- Obtaining help to prepare meals, do housework, and care for family members
Admission to the Hospital
- Lowering your blood pressure with medication
- Medications to prevent eclampsia
- Monitoring your baby's condition
- Making sure you get enough rest
- Get early and regular prenatal care. Early treatment of pre-eclampsia may prevent eclampsia.
- If you have chronic high blood pressure, keep it under control during pregnancy.
- Get your doctor's approval before taking any prescription or over-the-counter medications.
- Do not smoke or drink alcohol during pregnancy.
- Eat regular, healthful meals, and take prenatal vitamins.
- Ask your doctor if you should take a daily calcium supplement. In women who have a low calcium intake, supplementation may reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and premature birth .
- Your doctor may recommend that you take aspirin to lower your risk of pre-eclampsia.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists http://www.acog.org
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians http://familydoctor.org
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada http://www.sogc.org
Women's Health Matters http://www.womenshealthmatters.ca
High blood pressure in pregnancy. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/resources/heart/hbp-pregnancy. Accessed August 5, 2013.
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed.ebscohost.com. Updated May 28, 2013. Accessed August 5, 2013.
Preeclampsia and high blood pressure during pregnancy. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq034.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20130314T1318525934. Accessed August 5, 2013.
Pregnancy-induced hypertension. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/pregnancy-induced-hypertension.html. Updated August 2010. Accessed August 5, 2013.
9/30/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Samuels-Kalow ME, Funai EF, Buhimschi C, et al. Prepregnancy body mass index, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and long-term maternal mortality. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 2007;197:490.e1-e6.
7/6/2006 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Villar J, Abdel-Aleem H, Merialdi M, et al. World Health Organization randomized trial of calcium supplementation among low calcium intake pregnant women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194(3):639-649.
7/6/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Kumar A, Devi SG, Batra S, Singh C, Shukla DK. Calcium supplementation for the prevention of pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;104(1):32-36.
8/6/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Bujold E, Roberge S, Lacasse Y, et al. Prevention of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction with aspirin started in early pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(2 Pt 1):402-414.
6/9/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Qin JZ, Pang LH, Li MJ, et al. Obstetric complications in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:56
- Reviewer: Andrea Chisholm
- Review Date: 05/2015 -
- Update Date: 06/09/2014 -