(Enteric Fever; Paratyphoid Fever)
- Food or drinks handled by someone who is sick with typhoid fever
- Food or drinks handled by someone who has no symptoms but carries the bacteria
- Sewage contamination of water or food
- Unpasteurized dairy products
- Unrefrigerated poultry products
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- Drinking contaminated water
- Eating raw shellfish
- Eating fruits and vegetables that are raw or have been washed with contaminated water
- Living in, or recent travel, to a country with poor sanitation
- Fever, often over a long period of time
- Severe headaches
- Constipation or diarrhea
- Abdominal pain
- Loss of appetite
- Rose-colored spots on the body
- Muscle pains
- Swelling of the neck glands, liver, or spleen
Careful food monitoring in areas where typhoid fever is prevalent:
- Drink only bottled water or water that has been boiled for at least one minute. This includes ice.
- Eat foods while they are still hot. Ensure that they are thoroughly cooked.
- Avoid any raw fruits and vegetables that cannot be peeled.
- Avoid raw shellfish.
- Avoid unpasteurized dairy products.
Vaccination— recommended if you are planning to visit a country where typhoid fever is prevalent.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website has recommended vaccinations before traveling
- Be aware that the vaccine is not always effective. Careful food monitoring is still important.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov
World Health Organization http://www.who.int
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca
Bhan MK, Bahl R, Bhatnagar S. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Lancet. 2005 Aug 27-Sep 2;366(9487):749-62.
Bui YG, Trépanier S, et al. Cases of Malaria, Hepatitis A, and Typhoid Fever Among VFRs, Quebec (Canada). J Travel Med. 2011;18(6):373-378.
Johnson KJ, Gallagher NM, et al. From the CDC: New Country-Specific Recommendations for Pre-Travel Typhoid Vaccination. J Travel Med. 2011;18(6):430-433.
Typhoid fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/divisions/dfbmd/diseases/typhoid%5Ffever/. Updated May 14, 2013. Accessed August 7, 2013.
Typhoid fever. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated September 14, 2012. Accessed August 7, 2013.
Typhoid vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/typhoid.html. Updated May 29, 2012. Accessed August 7, 2013.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 08/2013 -
- Update Date: 05/11/2013 -